What do you understand when you heard the word- motor? Well, in simple terms, the motor does mean that some device that is in motion, but it is not true at all the times. Actually, the motion means something within the motor is hidden and is functioning. Now, let’s talk about an electric motor. It is a mechanical device that uses electrical power to convert mechanical power and you will not believe that most of our household appliances work on this principle only. However, the main question that arises in our mind is how these electric motors work?
To understand this thing, you need to understand about the motor magnet at a very basic level. According to elementary science, a motor magnet is made of two different and opposing poles, the north pole and the south pole. The action begins when another magnet is in the same locality and at that time, both the magnets pull themselves towards one another via their opposing poles. Have you about the phrase- opposites attract? Well, it derived from the magnets themselves. This is the simple phenomenon that is used in the electric motor functioning. It comprises a few simple and fundamental elements. An electromagnet that is powered by electricity is created via a coil of wires and through this wire, an electrical current runs. When you increase the number of wires, the force increases too.
The 2nd element is a permanent magnet and is placed near and surrounding the electromagnet. Now all you need to do is to switch the electromagnet ON and a magnetic field will be created. Due to the opposite poles of both magnets will attract to each other, the coils of wire will turn. For a motor to run properly, you need to make sure that the coil produces continuous flow of movement and then only, you can use them. Attraction and repulsion between the two magnets are created rapidly and continuously for the continuous turning of coils. Ultimately, the mechanical and electrical energy is transferred into kinetic energy or motion.
Now, we need to understand the making of the electric motor. Generally, electric motors have two kinds of power source— Direct Current (DC) and Indirect Current (AC). Electric motors mostly run on the alternating current power source and it creates alternating of poles and continuous spinning of electromagnetic coils. At the same time, when an electric motor runs on direct current, it is powered by batteries.
It is very important that the alternating poles effect is created in the electric motor and to produce that alternating poles effect, a supplementary part in every motor to reproduce the alternating route of the current into the electromagnet. When you are looking for a fair amount of movement in the motor mechanism, the alternating current is used. Some of the examples are fans, blenders and trains where you require continuous and systematic movement is required. In contrary to that, when you are looking for less powered motors like notebook fans, hard disks, vacuum cleaners and electric toothbrushes, the direct current is used for the functioning of a motor.